Aviation fuel for turbine engined aircrafts
- Irritating to skin.
- May cause lung damage if swallowed.
- Inhalation and/or ingestion may produce health damage.
|Visual||Clear, bright and visually free from solid matter and undissolved water at ambient temperature|
|Flash point, °C (min)||38.0||170 or 523||D 56 or D 3828|
|Density at 150C, kg/m3||775.0 min to 840.0 max||160 or 365||D 1298 or D 4052|
|Subject to a minimum of 400C, results obtained by method ASTM D 56 (Tag) may be accepted.|
|Freezing Point, °C (max)||-47.0||16 or 435 or 528 or 529||D 2386 or D 5972 or D 7153 or D 7154|
|These automatic methods are allowed by DEF STAN 91-91/5.IP 16/ASTM D 2386 remains the referee method.|
|Specific Energy, net, MJ/kg (min)||42.80||D 3338 or D 4809|
|ASTM D 4529/IP 381 may be used where local regulations permit|
|Corrosion, Copper strip, classification (max)||1||154||D 130|
|Thermal Stability (JFTOT)||323||D 3241|
|Control temperature, °C (min)||260|
|Filter Pressure Differential, mm H (max)||25.0|
|Examination of the heater tube to determine the Visual Tube Rating using the Visual Tuberator shall be carried out within 120 minutes of completion of the test. It is the Visual Tube Rating that should be reported. Attention is drawn to Note 10* in DEF STAN 91-91/5, which stresses that only approved heater tubes shall be used and lists JFTOT tubes from PAC-Alcor as being technically suitable.|
|Existent Gum, mg/100ml (max)||7||540||D 381|
|Electrical Conductivity, pS/m||50 min to 600 max||274||D 2624|
|Due to the requirements of DEF STAN 91-91/5, conductivity limits are mandatory for product to meet this specification. However it is acknowledged that in some manufacturing and distribution systems, it is more practical to inject SDA further downstream. In such cases, the Certificate of Quality for the batch should be annotated thus: “Product meets the requirements of AFQRJOS Check List 22 except for electrical conductivity”. Due to the high flow rates and very fine filtration used when fuelling aircraft, it is absolutely essential tat these conductivity limits are met at the point of delivery to aircraft.|
British Ministry of Defence Standard DEF STAN 91-91/Issue 5 of 8 February, 2005 and Amendment 2, dated 9 March 2007, for Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Type, Jet A-1, NATO Code F-35, Joint Service Designation AVTUR.
* Note 10: Thermal Stability is a critical aviation fuel test and while competition among equipment manufacturers/suppliers is to be encouraged, aircraft safety must remain paramount. It is known that there are JFTOT tubes being supplied by sources other than the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Until the alternative manufacturers’ tubes have been demonstrated to be equivalent to the OEM’s test pieces, to the satisfaction of the AFC, they shall not be used.